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The development history of indium phosphide

wallpapers Tech 2021-01-20
Indium phosphide (InP) is one of the important III-V compound semiconductor materials and is a new generation of electronic functional materials after Si and Ga As. Almost at the same time as the development and research of the first generation of elemental semiconductor materials such as germanium and silicon, scientists have also begun a lot of exploration work on compound semiconductor materials.
 
In 1952, Welker et al. discovered that compounds formed by group III and group V elements are also semiconductors, and some compound semiconductors such as Ga As and In P have superior characteristics that Ge and Si do not possess (such as high electron mobility, bandgap Etc.), can have a wide range of applications in the field of microwave and optoelectronic devices, so it began to attract widespread attention to compound semiconductor materials. However, because these compounds contain volatile group V elements, the preparation of materials is far more difficult than Ge and Si.
 
By the end of the 1950s, scientists had grown Ga As and InP single crystals by applying the horizontal Bridgman method (HB), temperature gradient method (GF) and magnetic coupling pulling method, but the crystals were too small for large-scale Research. In 1962, Metz et al. proposed that the liquid-sealed Czochralski method (LEC) could be used to prepare compound semiconductor crystals.
 
From 1965 to 1968, Mullin et al. used boron trioxide (B2O3) as a liquid sealing agent for the first time, using the LEC method Single crystal materials such as Ga As and InP were grown, which laid the foundation for the future growth of large-diameter, high-quality III-V group single crystals, and the research on InP materials really began. However, since InP has a melting point temperature of 1335±7K, the dissociation pressure of phosphorus is 27.5 atm, so the synthesis of InP polycrystals is relatively difficult, and the growth of single crystals is much more difficult, that is to say, the entire process must always be carried out under high temperature and high pressure.
 
Therefore, the current InP polishing wafer of the same area is 3 to 5 times more expensive than Ga As. The research on In P materials is far less thorough and extensive than Si, Ga As and other materials. It was only in the 1970s that it was proposed that In P may have a three-energy valley energy band structure, so many scientists turned their attention to In P materials, which made the research of In P a small climax, but later proved that In P and Ga As is also the two-energy valley energy band structure. With the rapid development of HEMT technology and application in the 1980s and the great development of optical fiber communication, the popularity of optoelectronic devices and the large demand for solar cells greatly promoted the research and development of InP materials closely related to these technologies.

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